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Heinemann Queensland Science Project Biology Student Activity Manual

Part 1: Living in an environment

Activity 1.1

Taxonomy

http://users.rcn.com/jkimball.ma.ultranet/BiologyPages/T/Taxonomy.html
An outline of the various methods of comparing samples for classification purposes.
Activity manual page/s: 2, 5


Biotechnology and fossils
http://www.geotimes.org/jan03/NN_biotech.html
The story of how molecular biology techniques have succeeded in identifying the world's first complete protein sequence from fossils.
Activity manual page/s: 2, 5


Fossil hominids and mitochondrial DNA
http://www.talkorigins.org/faqs/homs/mtDNA.html
An outline of how mitochondrial DNA has been used to trace hominid evolution.
Activity manual page/s: 2, 5


Activity 1.2

Invertebrate key 1

http://www.ento.csiro.au/education/key/couplet_01.html
A simple invertebrate key.
Activity manual page/s: 6, 9


Pond life identification
http://www.microscopy-uk.org.uk/pond/
A simple guide to small and microscopic pond life.
Activity manual page/s: 6, 9


What is an invertebrate?
http://www.ento.csiro.au/education/what_invertebrates.html
Follow the links down the left hand side to find out about the invertebrate groups, or use the links at the top and bottom of the page to use the Invertebrate Key.
Activity manual page/s: 6, 9


Invertebrate key 2
http://science.kennesaw.edu/~jdirnber/InvertZoo/LinksLab.htm
Describes invertebrate collection methods and links to a range of invertebrate keys and guides.
Activity manual page/s: 6, 9


Activity 1.3

Australian National Botanic Gardens

http://www.anbg.gov.au/anbg/
Australian National Botanic Gardens site. Contains detailed information and excellent images of all Australian species.
Activity manual page/s: 10, 11, 12


Biological databases
http://www.viridans.com.au/
Extensive databases of Australian plants and animals and images of them.
Activity manual page/s: 10, 11, 12


Activity 1.4

Ecological sampling techniques

http://www.habitats.freeserve.co.uk/howto.htm
An outline of sampling techniques such as transects and quadrats.
Activity manual page/s: 13, 16


Australian weeds 3
http://www.weeds.org.au/
Links to information about Australia's weeds and conservation strategies.
Activity manual page/s: 13, 16


Activity 1.5

Ecological sampling techniques

http://www.habitats.freeserve.co.uk/howto.htm
An outline of sampling techniques such as transects and quadrats.
Activity manual page/s: 17, 22


Australian weeds 3
http://www.weeds.org.au/
Links to information about Australia's weeds and conservation strategies.
Activity manual page/s: 17, 22


Activity 1.6

Leaf litter invertebrates

http://www.biosci.missouri.edu/carrel/research/forest-arthropods.htm
A pictographic key to leaf litter arthropods is no longer available on the Missouri website. This weblink listed provides lots of information regarding leaf litter anthropods.
Activity manual page/s: 23, 31


Compost guide
http://www.compostguide.com/
Complete guide to making compost, including the benefits of composting and what each part contributes to recycling of nutrients.
Activity manual page/s: 23, 31


Activity 1.7

Energy cycle in living things

http://hyperphysics.phy-astr.gsu.edu/hbase/biology/enercyc.html#c1
A summary of the production of energy during photosynthesis and its release during respiration.
Activity manual page/s: 32, 35


Cellular respiration 1
http://users.rcn.com/jkimball.ma.ultranet/BiologyPages/C/CellularRespiration.html
An outline of the process of respiration.
Activity manual page/s: 32, 35


Cellular respiration 2
http://www.wordiq.com/definition/Cellular_respiration
Definition of cellular respiration.
Activity manual page/s: 32, 35


Activity 1.8

Forest types

http://www.environment.gov.au/biodiversity/threatened/publications/index.html
An outline of forest types by the Australian Government Department of the Environment and Heritage.
Activity manual page/s: 36, 39


Waterwatch Australia
http://www.waterwatch.org.au/
Use the library to investigate a range of water testing programs and techniques. Or check out the Waterwatch data section.
Activity manual page/s: 36, 39


Streamwatch
http://www.streamwatch.org.au/
Streamwatch is a dynamic environmental action network educating and empowering communities to work together for healthy catchment. Check out the Electronic Library for measuring techniques and reference guides.
Activity manual page/s: 36, 39


EPA Queensland
http://www.derm.qld.gov.au/
Information, resources and techniques for management of a range of environmental factors.
Activity manual page/s: 36, 39


Bureau of Meteorology
http://www.bom.gov.au/
Go here for information on climatic factors and conditions, as well as information on weather around Australia.
Activity manual page/s: 36, 39


Activity 1.9

Pond life identification kit

http://www.microscopy-uk.org.uk/pond/
A simple guide to small and microscopic pond life, including some tips for collecting, keeping and culturing microorganisms.
Activity manual page/s: 40, 43


Setting up a freshwater aquarium 1
http://me.essortment.com/freshwateraqua_rlwx.htm
In-depth information on setting up and maintaining a fantastic fresh water tropical aquarium.
Activity manual page/s: 40, 43


Setting up a freshwater aquarium 2
http://www.aquaticcritter.com/Freshwater/settingupaquarium.htm
Selecting and setting up an aquarium.
Activity manual page/s: 40, 43


Activity 1.10

DDT 1

http://pmep.cce.cornell.edu/profiles/extoxnet/carbaryl-dicrotophos/ddt-ext.html
Extensive information about the chemistry and effects of DDT.
Activity manual page/s: 44, 46


DDT 2
http://www.chem.duke.edu/~jds/cruise_chem/pest/effects.html
This page covers the specific effects of DDT on certain organism. It is part of a broader outline of the chemistry and effects of DDT.
Activity manual page/s: 44, 46


United Nations Population estimates
http://www.un.org/esa/population/unpop.htm
Use the 'Data online' link to see predicted population for a number of years. The '2002 Revision highlights' and 'Tables' contain all the data you could want but can be slow to download.
Activity manual page/s: 47, 49


Growing mangroves
http://www.mesa.edu.au/cams/pdf/mangroves.pdf
As well as containing information on growing mangroves, this is an excellent guide to mangrove fieldwork, including identification of mangroves species.
Activity manual page/s: 50, 52, 53


Dryland salinity 1
http://www.ndsp.gov.au/
Home page of Australia's lead knowledge broker of research, development and extension efforts to combat the risk of dryland salinity to our land and water resources.
Activity manual page/s: 50, 52, 53


Dryland salinity 2
http://www.science.org.au/nova/032/032key.htm
New technology is being used to help monitor the extent of dryland salinity threatening large areas of Australia's agricultural zone.
Activity manual page/s: 50, 52, 53


Activity 1.13

How fire affects biodiversity

http://www.anbg.gov.au/fire_ecology/fire-and-biodiversity.html
The ways in which fires affect biodiversity are considered using examples from the semi-arid mallee, the cold Tablelands of Tasmania, the woodlands of the Australian Capital Territory (ACT) and coastal heathlands of mainland south-eastern Australia.
Activity manual page/s: 54, 56


The passage of fire
http://farrer.riv.csu.edu.au/ASGAP/APOL24/dec01-5.html
This article reports on the aftermath of a severe bushfire in the upper Blue Mountains, New South Wales in November 1982 and examines the adaptations of a range of plant species to enable them to regenerate.
Activity manual page/s: 54, 56


Growing mangroves
http://www.mesa.edu.au/cams/pdf/mangroves.pdf
Apart from information on growing mangroves, this is an excellent guide to mangrove fieldwork, including identification of mangroves species.
Activity manual page/s: 57, 61


Dryland salinity 1
http://www.ndsp.gov.au/
Home page of Australia's lead knowledge broker of research, development and extension efforts to combat the risk of dryland salinity to our land and water resources.
Activity manual page/s: 57, 61


Dryland salinity 2
http://www.science.org.au/nova/032/032key.htm
New technology is being used to help monitor the extent of dryland salinity threatening large areas of Australia's agricultural zone.
Activity manual page/s: 57, 61


Part 2: Functioning organisms

Activity 2.1

Plant cell organelles

http://www.cellsalive.com/cells/cell_model.htm
An interactive exploration of plant cell organelles.
Activity manual page/s: 63, 65, 66, 69


Plant cell anatomy
http://www.enchantedlearning.com/subjects/plants/cell/
Diagram of a plant cell and glossary of cell organelles.
Activity manual page/s: 63, 65, 66, 69


Nervous system
http://faculty.washington.edu/chudler/introb.html
Nervous system.
Activity manual page/s: 63, 65, 66, 69


Nervous tissues
http://www.botany.uwc.ac.za/sci_ed/grade10/mammal/nervous.htm
An outline of the types of neurons.
Activity manual page/s: 63, 65, 66, 69


Scanning electron microscopes
http://www.mos.org/sln/SEM/
How they work, image gallery, cool links and other resources.
Activity manual page/s: 63, 65, 66, 69


Activity 2.2

Osmosis demonstration

http://physioweb.med.uvm.edu/bodyfluids/osmosis.htm
A simple applet demonstrating the principle of osmosis. Also includes explanatory notes about osmosis and diffusion.
Activity manual page/s: 70, 74


Textbook page/s: 16
Diffusion demonstration
http://www.lessonplanspage.com/ScienceColorfulDensityAcidBasepHDiffusionDemo712.htm
Information about diffusion. Refer to the notes about osmosis and diffusion in the osmosis link above.
Activity manual page/s: 70, 74


Activity 2.3

Osmosis demonstration

http://physioweb.med.uvm.edu/bodyfluids/osmosis.htm
A simple applet demonstrating the principle of osmosis. Also includes explanatory notes about osmosis and diffusion.
Activity manual page/s: 75


Textbook page/s: 17
Diffusion demonstration
http://www.lessonplanspage.com/ScienceColorfulDensityAcidBasepHDiffusionDemo712.htm
Information about diffusion. Refer to the notes about osmosis and diffusion in the osmosis link above.
Activity manual page/s: 75


Activity 2.4

Factors affecting enzymes

http://users.rcn.com/jkimball.ma.ultranet/BiologyPages/E/Enzymes.html
An outline of the factors affecting the rate of enzyme activity.
Activity manual page/s: 81


Introduction to enzymes
http://www.worthington-biochem.com/introBiochem/introEnzymes.html
A basic introduction to enzymes. Follow the links towards the bottom of the page to the various factors affecting enzyme activity.
Activity manual page/s: 81


Activity 2.7

Yoghurt

http://encyclopedia.thefreedictionary.com/yoghurt
Types of yoghurt and history of its making.
Activity manual page/s: 99, 100


Activity 2.8

Symbiotic nitrogen fixation

http://users.rcn.com/jkimball.ma.ultranet/BiologyPages/N/NitrogenFixation.html
Symbiotic nitrogen fixation occurs in plants that harbour nitrogen-fixing bacteria within their tissues.
Activity manual page/s: 101, 102


Role of nitrogen in the biosphere
http://www.visionlearning.com/library/module_viewer.php?mid=98
The nitrogen cycle and nitrogen fixation.
Activity manual page/s: 101, 102


The honey possum
http://science.uniserve.edu.au/school/curric/stage6/biol/honeypos.pdf
The diet and digestive system of the nectar feeding honey possum.
Activity manual page/s: 103, 107


How does the digestive system work?
http://arbl.cvmbs.colostate.edu/hbooks/pathphys/digestion/
Structure and function of digestive system are succinctly explained.
Activity manual page/s: 103, 107


Ectotherms and endotherms
http://www.cix.co.uk/~argus/Dreambio/homeostasis/ectotherms%20and%20endotherms.htm
A basic coverage of the two types of animals.
Activity manual page/s: 108, 112


Plant adaptations to arid environments 2
http://www.desertusa.com/du_plantsurv.html
A coverage of the adaptations needed by plants in the desert.
Activity manual page/s: 113, 117


What are adaptations?
http://www.fairchildgarden.org/EduProfDev/What_are_adaptations.html
An outline of what adaptations are and a description of the functional and reproductive adaptations of plants.
Activity manual page/s: 113, 117


Lung function tests
http://www.aic.cuhk.edu.hk/web8/lung_function_tests.htm
A description of the different lung functions and how they are measured.
Activity manual page/s: 118, 120, 121


Lung volumes
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lung_volume
Definitions and values for the various lung volumes. Follow the links for further details.
Activity manual page/s: 118, 120, 121


Activity 2.13

Plant structure

http://www.csiro.au/science/psht.html
A detailed coverage of the components of the plant transport system and their structure and function.
Activity manual page/s: 123, 126


Phloem structure, function and development
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Vascular_plant
Overviews structure and function of phloem in vascular plants.
Activity manual page/s: 123, 126


Activity 2.14

Organ donation

http://www.tsanz.com.au/organallocationprotocols/index.asp
Follow the link to Heart protocol.
Activity manual page/s: 129, 134


The circulatory system 2
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Circulatory_system
Outlines of a number of circulatory systems.
Activity manual page/s: 129, 134


Activity 2.15

Australian Red Cross blood donation

http://www.donateblood.com.au/
Provides details about medical conditions that are treated by various blood products.
Activity manual page/s: 136


Blood in the body
http://www.pbs.org/wnet/redgold/basics/bloodvessels.html
This site covers the basic of blood. Follow the links down the right hand side to explore the various aspects of blood.
Activity manual page/s: 136


Activity 2.16

Organ donation

http://www.tsanz.com.au/organallocationprotocols/index.asp
Follow the link to Kidney protocol.
Activity manual page/s: 141, 145


Treatment methods for kidney failure
http://kidney.niddk.nih.gov/kudiseases/pubs/hemodialysis/
An outline of haemodialysis.
Activity manual page/s: 141, 145


Desert animal survival
http://www.desertusa.com/survive.html
Adaptations that animals have to survive the lack of water in deserts.
Activity manual page/s: 141, 145


Water regulation in animals
http://www.biology-online.org/5/1_animal_water_regulation.htm
Anatomical, physiological and behavioural changes in animals to cope with water availability in their environment.
Activity manual page/s: 141, 145


Amphibian biology and physiology
http://www.livingunderworld.org/biology/
A good outline of amphibian biology and physiology.
Activity manual page/s: 146, 147, 148


Mapping human brain function
http://www.er.doe.gov/Sub/Accomplishments/Decades_Discovery/92.html
A brief outline of how the human brain is mapped, plus the scientific and social impacts.
Activity manual page/s: 150, 153, 154


Speech and the brain
http://webspace.ship.edu/cgboer/speechbrain.html
An outline of the areas of the brain and their functions.
Activity manual page/s: 150, 153, 154


Sigmund Freud 1
http://www.freudfile.org/
The life and work of Sigmund Freud.
Activity manual page/s: 150, 153, 154


Sigmund Freud 2
http://webspace.ship.edu/cgboer/genpsyfreud.html
The life and work of Sigmund Freud.
Activity manual page/s: 150, 153, 154


Quadriplegia
http://www.medfriendly.com/quadriplegia.php5
Facts, figures, symptoms, etc. about quadriplegia.
Activity manual page/s: 150, 153, 154


Hemiplegia
http://www.medfriendly.com/hemiplegia.html
Facts, figures, symptoms, etc. about hemiplegia.
Activity manual page/s: 150, 153, 154


Spinal cord injury 1
http://www.ecureme.com/emyhealth/data/Spinal_Cord_Injury.asp
Symptoms, causes, diagnosis, etc. for spinal cord injuries.
Activity manual page/s: 150, 153, 154


Spinal cord injury 2
http://www.spinalinjury.net/html/_spinal_cord_101.html
Some basic questions and answers about spinal cord injuries.
Activity manual page/s: 150, 153, 154


Blind spot 1
http://serendip.brynmawr.edu/bb/blindspot1.html
How much of what you see is made up by the brain?
Activity manual page/s: 150, 153, 154


Activity 2.19

Salicylic acid and plant growth

http://www.virtualsciencefair.com/
Small amounts of salicylic acid are known to be present in plants. Originally salicylic acid was extracted from the willow bark to make the well known pain relief medication Aspirin.
Activity manual page/s: 155, 161


Activity 2.20

Thermal regulation 1

http://encyclopedia.thefreedictionary.com/Thermal%20regulation
Detailed coverage of thermal regulation in mammals.
Activity manual page/s: 162, 168


Thermal regulation 3
http://wc.pima.edu/~bfiero/tucsonecology/adaptations/thermoregulation.htm
A coverage of the types of thermoregulation and thermal regulation in vertebrates.
Activity manual page/s: 162, 168


Diabetes 2
http://www.healthinsite.gov.au/topics/Diabetes
Links to a range of information sites about diabetes, including the types of diabetes.
Activity manual page/s: 169, 172, 174


Diabetes Australia
http://www.diabetesaustralia.com.au
The national voice for people with diabetes, health professionals and researchers.
Activity manual page/s: 169, 172, 174


Activity 2.22

Endurance training

http://www.brianmac.co.uk/enduranc.htm
An outline of endurance training, with links to other resources.
Activity manual page/s: 175


Continuous and interval training for greater endurance
http://www.sport-fitness-advisor.com/intervaltraining.html
This article explains how often you should perform endurance training and at what intensity. Use the general guidelines to develop your own sport-specific continuous and interval training sessions.
Activity manual page/s: 175


Interval training
http://sportsmedicine.about.com/od/tipsandtricks/a/Intervals.htm
A basic outline of interval training, with links to other resources.
Activity manual page/s: 175


Activity 2.23

High altitude medicine

http://www.high-altitude-medicine.com/
Provides current medical information on the prevention, recognition, and treatment of altitude illness, as well as other health issues affecting travellers to high mountainous regions of the world. Information content is designed for the use of physicians and non-physicians alike.
Activity manual page/s: 180, 181, 183


Adapting to extreme climates
http://anthro.palomar.edu/adapt/adapt_2.htm
Humans and many other mammals have unusually efficient internal temperature regulating systems that automatically maintain stable core body temperatures in cold winters and warm summers. In addition, people have developed cultural patterns and technologies that help them adjust to extremes of temperature and humidity.
Activity manual page/s: 180, 181, 183


Humans in space
http://www.nasa.gov/vision/space/features/
NASA's guide to travelling and living in space.
Activity manual page/s: 180, 181, 183


Bushwalking
http://www.wises.com.au/
You will find on this page a link to a variety of interesting sites. They will be categorised into general areas of interest.
Activity manual page/s: 180, 181, 183


Artificial asexual reproduction
http://www.saburchill.com/ans02/chapters/chap053.html
Follow the links for information about the processes of vegetative reproduction.
Activity manual page/s: 184, 187


Sea turtle reproduction
http://www.seaworld.org/infobooks/SeaTurtle/strepro.html
An outline of the reproductive strategies of the sea turtle.
Activity manual page/s: 188, 189


Life cycle of the sea turtle
http://www.unc.edu/depts/oceanweb/turtles/lifecycle.html
A generalised version of the life cycle of the sea turtle.
Activity manual page/s: 188, 189


Activity 2.26

Bananas 1

http://www.wordiq.com/definition/Banana
A description of the biology and reproduction of bananas.
Activity manual page/s: 190, 191, 192


Growing bananas and pineapples 1
http://www.csiro.au
Visit CSIRO online and search for growing bananas or growing pineapples.
Activity manual page/s: 190, 191, 192


Growing bananas and pineapples 1
http://www.dpi.qld.gov.au/
Visit the online home of DPI&F and search for 'growing bananas' or 'growing pineapples'.
Activity manual page/s: 190, 191, 192


Activity 2.27

Composite flowers

http://www.backyardnature.net/fl_comps.htm
An extensive outline of the structure of composite flowers.
Activity manual page/s: 194, 196


Patterns of the aster or sunflower family
http://www.wildflowers-and-weeds.com/Plant_Families/Asteraceae.htm
A good outline of the structure of composite flowers and information about each of the families.
Activity manual page/s: 194, 196


Activity 2.28

The making of Joey

http://www.australianwildlife.com.au/kangaroo.htm#reproduction
A summary of the features and reproduction of kangaroos.
Activity manual page/s: 197, 198


Australian fauna
http://www.aussie-info.com/identity/fauna/index.php
Follow the links for individual animals to find more details, including reproduction.
Activity manual page/s: 197, 198


Activity 2.29

How fire affects biodiversity

http://www.anbg.gov.au/fire_ecology/fire-and-biodiversity.html
The ways in which fires affect biodiversity are considered using examples from the semi-arid mallee, the cold Tablelands of Tasmania, the woodlands of the Australian Capital Territory (ACT) and coastal heathlands of mainland south-eastern Australia.
Activity manual page/s: 199, 201


Activity 2.30

Australian plants online

http://farrer.riv.csu.edu.au/ASGAP/APOL15/sep99-1.html
An article about how to recognise probable reproductive techniques, as well as who the flowers are designed to attract.
Activity manual page/s: 202


http://www.sgapqld.org.au/qldregion.html
Read some of their publications for information about the reproduction of Australian native plants.
Activity manual page/s: 202


Activity 2.31

Leading categories of birth defects

http://www.marchofdimes.com/aboutus/680_2168.asp
Brief descriptions of the major groups of birth defects.
Activity manual page/s: 205, 208, 209, 210, 211


Birth defects 1
http://kidshealth.org/parent/system/ill/birth_defects.html
An outline of a variety of birth defects. Follow the links at the bottom for more detail.
Activity manual page/s: 205, 208, 209, 210, 211


Birth defects 2
http://www.marchofdimes.com/professionals/681_1206.asp
An extensive outline of birth defects, their causes and prevention.
Activity manual page/s: 205, 208, 209, 210, 211


Birth defects 3
http://ibis-birthdefects.org/start/birthd.htm
Follow the links for birth defects or causes.
Activity manual page/s: 205, 208, 209, 210, 211


Activity 2.32

The IVF program

http://www.monashivf.com/
The Monash IVF program.
Activity manual page/s: 212


Activity 2.33

Plant pathology 1

http://bugs.bio.usyd.edu.au/learning/resources/PlantPathology/infection/infection_process.html
Extensive information about plant pests and their control.
Activity manual page/s: 222, 224


Plant pathology 2
http://www.rbgsyd.nsw.gov.au/
Plant pathology section of the Botanic Gardens Trust.
Activity manual page/s: 222, 224


Strangler fig 2
http://lamington.nrsm.uq.edu.au/Documents/Plant/Fig.htm
General information about strangler figs iin Lamington National Park.
Activity manual page/s: 222, 224


Activity 2.34

Malaria: general information

http://www.cdc.gov/travel/diseases.htm#malaria
Information from the Centre for Disease Control and Prevention.
Activity manual page/s: 225, 228


Malaria
http://www.who.int/topics/malaria/en/
Information from the World health Organization. Follow the links for further information.
Activity manual page/s: 225, 228


History of malaria 1
http://www.cdc.gov/malaria/history/
An extensive coverage of the development and attempted control of malaria.
Activity manual page/s: 225, 228


History of malaria 2
http://www.biodiversityexplorer.org/eukaryotes/chromalveolata/alveolata/apicomplexa/haemosporida/history_of_malaria.htm
A timeline of the history of malaria.
Activity manual page/s: 225, 228


Malaria fact sheet
http://www.worldwaterday.org/wwday/2001/disease/malaria.html
Covers the cause, effects, distribution, scope of the problem and intervention strategies.
Activity manual page/s: 225, 228


Activity 2.35

Cryptosporidiosis diseases

http://www.health.nsw.gov.au/infect/pdf/cryptofact_20060903.pdf
Facts about cryptosporidiosis: the organism, transmission, symptoms, treatment and prevention.
Activity manual page/s: 229


Giardiasis
http://www.cdc.gov/Ncidod/dpd/parasites/giardiasis/factsht_giardia.htm
Facts about giardiasis: the organism, transmission, symptoms, treatment and prevention.
Activity manual page/s: 229


Sydney's water
http://www.sydneywater.com.au/
Brief overview of the origin and treatment of Sydney's domestic water supply. Follow the links to water quality reports.
Activity manual page/s: 229


Drinking water contaminants
http://www.epa.gov/safewater/hfacts.html
An outline of the contaminants that can be found in water and their safe levels for drinking.
Activity manual page/s: 229


Activity 2.36

How the immune system fights disease

http://www.sfaf.org/aids101/immunology.html
An outline of the parts of the immune system and how it works to fight infection.
Activity manual page/s: 233, 235


The immune system
http://www.betterhealth.vic.gov.au/bhcv2/bhcarticles.nsf/pages/Immune_system?open
A basic outline of how the body responds to infection.
Activity manual page/s: 233, 235


Vaccines explained
http://www.betterhealth.vic.gov.au/bhcv2/bhcarticles.nsf/pages/Vaccines_explained?open
A basic outline of Australian vaccines. Follow the links at the bottom for more information.
Activity manual page/s: 233, 235


How your immune system works
http://www.howstuffworks.com/immune-system.htm
An outline of how the immune system works.
Activity manual page/s: 233, 235


National Centre for Infectious Diseases
http://www.cdc.gov/ncidod/
Browse the extensive list of diseases.
Activity manual page/s: 233, 235


World Health Organization health topics
http://www.who.int/topics/en/
Choose from one of the many diseases listed.
Activity manual page/s: 233, 235


Activity 2.37

History of antibiotics

http://www.abc.net.au/science/slab/antibiotics/default.htm
What are antibiotics and how do they work? An interesting exploration of the history and development of antibiotics.
Activity manual page/s: 236, 240


How do antibiotics work?
http://health.howstuffworks.com/health-illness/treatment/medicine/medications/question88.htm
An outline of how antibiotics work. Follow the links at the bottom for related information.
Activity manual page/s: 236, 240


History of antiseptics
http://inventors.about.com/library/inventors/blantisceptics.htm
The story of Ignaz Semmelweis and his work with antiseptics. Included are links to the work of Joseph Lister.
Activity manual page/s: 236, 240


Ignaz Semmelweis
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ignaz_Semmelweis
The story of Ignaz Semmelweis and his discovery of the importance of hygiene in medicine.
Activity manual page/s: 236, 240


Activity 2.38

Plant pathology 1

http://bugs.bio.usyd.edu.au/learning/resources/PlantPathology/infection/infection_process.html
Extensive information about plant pests and their control.
Activity manual page/s: 241, 243


Plant pathology 2
http://www.rbgsyd.nsw.gov.au/
Plant pathology section of the Botanic Gardens Trust.
Activity manual page/s: 241, 243


Plant health, pests and disease
http://dpi.qld.gov.au/cps/rde/xchg/dpi/hs.xsl/26_113_ENA_HTML.htm
Links to information about plant pests threatening Queensland plants.
Activity manual page/s: 241, 243


Activity 2.39

Mitosis and the cell cycle

http://www.biology.arizona.edu/cell_bio/tutorials/cell_cycle/main.html
This exercise is designed to introduce you to the events that occur in the cell cycle and the process of mitosis that divides the duplicated genetic material creating two identical daughter cells.
Activity manual page/s: 244, 247


Mitosis animations
http://www.sci.sdsu.edu/multimedia/mitosis/anim_samples.html
Mitosis animations in a range of formats.
Activity manual page/s: 244, 247


Mitosis in onion root tips
http://micro.magnet.fsu.edu/micro/gallery/mitosis/mitosis.html
Large, clear photographs of actual chromosomes at different stages of mitosis in cells of onion root tip. Concise explanations of chromosome behaviour at each stage.
Activity manual page/s: 244, 247


Activity 2.40

Meiosis tutorial

http://www.biology.arizona.edu/cell_bio/tutorials/meiosis/page3.html
Overviews meiosis. Each part of the process clearly and succinctly explained using excellent graphics. Includes animation of meiosis 1 and meiosis 2.
Activity manual page/s: 248, 249


Meiosis
http://biology.about.com/library/blmeiosisanim.htm
Animation of meiosis.
Activity manual page/s: 248, 249


Part3: Genetics and evolution

Activity 3.1

DNA Learning Center

http://www.dnalc.org/ddnalc/resources/animations.html
Link to PCR and other animations.
Activity manual page/s: 251, 253, 254


The Ice Maiden
http://www.nationalgeographic.com/andes/
Analysis of the Ice Maiden's DNA offered a wonderful opportunity for understanding her genetic origin.
Activity manual page/s: 251, 253, 254


Endangered whale meat
http://www.ems.org
Scientists have used DNA fingerprinting to prove that whale meat sold in Japan comes from endangered animals, an accusation that Japan has rejected in the past.
Activity manual page/s: 251, 253, 254


Activity 3.2

Model for protein

http://www.dnaftb.org/dnaftb/
Animated resource on the basics of DNA, genes and heredity.
Activity manual page/s: 255, 258


Polypeptide synthesis
http://encyclopedia.thefreedictionary.com/Polypeptide%20synthesis
A brief outline of the process of polypeptide synthesis, with related links.
Activity manual page/s: 255, 258


Thylacine Museum
http://naturalworlds.org/thylacine/
The Thylacine Museum is an online reference to the thylacine &ndash its biology and history.
Activity manual page/s: 259, 260


Cloning the thylacine 2
http://museumvictoria.com.au/scidiscovery/dna/cloning.asp
Scientists have recently succeeded in cloning sheep, pigs and mice from single living cells. Some scientists now claim that it will be possible to resurrect extinct animals using similar technology.
Activity manual page/s: 259, 260


Activity 3.4

Pedigrees

http://www.alfirin.net/pedigree-central/
Online pedigrees for Australian animals.
Activity manual page/s: 261, 266


Five-generation pedigree chart
http://museumvictoria.com.au/pharlap/facts/pedigree.asp
Phar Lap's Pedigree Chart.
Activity manual page/s: 261, 266


Activity 3.5

Mendel's genetic laws

http://users.adelphia.net/~lubehawk/BioHELP!/mendel.htm
An outline of Mendel's three laws.
Activity manual page/s: 267



Activity 3.5

Mendel's genetic laws
http://www.hobart.k12.in.us/jkousen/Biology/mendel.htm
An outline of Mendel's three laws.
Activity manual page/s: 267


Animation of Mendel's experiment
http://www.mendel-museum.org/eng/1online/experiment.htm
This animation describes Gregor Mendel's experiment as presented in his Experiments in Plant Hybridization (1865). The animation illustrates the visible patterns of characteristics which emerged in successive generations of pea plants, along with Mendel's mathematical analysis. Visit other parts of the Mendel Musuem for further information about Mendel and his work in genetics.
Activity manual page/s: 267


Activity 3.6

High altitude and athletic training

http://www.rice.edu/~jenky/sports/altitude.html
The effects of altitude on respiration and how to overcome these.
Activity manual page/s: 274, 276, 277


Altitude training
http://www.pponline.co.uk/encyc/0323.htm
A discussion of the scientific basis for altitude training and whether it works or not.
Activity manual page/s: 274, 276, 277


Fossil succession
http://pubs.usgs.gov/gip/fossils/succession.html
Uses diagrams to explain how the fossil record is constructed. Considers complexity of fossils as well as rock strata.
Activity manual page/s: 278, 281


Darwinism
http://www.aboutdarwin.com/timeline/time_01.html
An outline of the life and work of Charles Darwin.
Activity manual page/s: 282, 286


Evolution 2
http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/evolution/
PBS series on evoution. Lots of information plus many links.
Activity manual page/s: 282, 286


The evolution wing
http://evolution.berkeley.edu/
The theory of evolution.
Activity manual page/s: 282, 286


Donald Johanson
http://www.talkorigins.org/faqs/homs/djohanson.html
Biography of the palaeontologist who discovered Lucy.
Activity manual page/s: 287, 290


Multiregional or Out-of-Africa?
http://www.actionbioscience.org/evolution/johanson.html
A discussion of the two theories.
Activity manual page/s: 287, 290


Human evolution
http://www.txtwriter.com/Onscience/Articles/humanevolution.html
Debate on the theories of evolution.
Activity manual page/s: 287, 290


Activity 3.10

Darwinism

http://www.aboutdarwin.com/timeline/time_01.html
An outline of the life and work of Charles Darwin.
Activity manual page/s: 291, 292


Sickle cell and thallassaemia 2
http://sickle.bwh.harvard.edu/
The goal of this site is to provide a source of current information on sickle cell disease, thalassemia and disorders of iron metabolism.
Activity manual page/s: 293, 295


Activity 3.12

Small population size effects

http://anthro.palomar.edu/synthetic/synth_5.htm
An outline of the effects of small populations, with some examples.
Activity manual page/s: 296, 299


Genetic drift
http://www.wordiq.com/definition/Genetic_drift
Definitions and links to further information on genetic drift and some of its consequences.
Activity manual page/s: 296, 299


Genetic drift and the founder effect
http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/evolution/library/06/3/l_063_03.html
Activity manual page/s: 296, 299


Fisheries and Aquaculture Research
http://www.dpi.qld.gov.au/far/
Based at research centres around the state, AFFS scientists are focusing their research on fisheries resource sustainability, stock assessment and breeding and growout technologies for marine and freshwater species for aquaculture and fish stocking.
Activity manual page/s: 300, 301


Australian Biodiversity
http://www.environment.gov.au/biodiversity/
Biodiversity is the variety of all life forms: the different plants, animals and microorganisms, their genes and the ecosystems of which they are a part. Australia is one of the most biologically diverse countries in the world, with a large portion of its species found nowhere else in the world.
Activity manual page/s: 300, 301


Plate tectonics 2
http://www.hartrao.ac.za/geodesy/tectonics.html
An outline of continents drifting apart.
Activity manual page/s: 302, 305


A timeline for life on Earth
http://www.talkorigins.org/faqs/faq-intro-to-biology.html
Discussion of the origins of life on Earth and the mechanisms of evolution. Includes links to related sites.
Activity manual page/s: 306, 307


Australasia during the last 150 000 years
http://www.esd.ornl.gov/projects/qen/nercAUSTRALASIA.html
Overviews changes in climate experienced by the Australasian region over the last 150 000 years. Examines accompanying changes in vegetation, including pollen analysis data from Australian localities.
Activity manual page/s: 306, 307


Geological eras and periods
http://museumvictoria.com.au/prehistoric/what/eras.html
An outline of the Geological eras and periods and the plants and animals in each.
Activity manual page/s: 306, 307


The fossils of Riversleigh
http://www.australianwildlife.com.au/riversleigh.htm
Describes changes in the Riversleigh ecology (climate, flora and fauna) over millions of years.
Activity manual page/s: 306, 307